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December 2017 (2 posts)

Transparency and Philanthropy - An Oxymoron in India? Not Anymore.
December 13, 2017

Sumitra Mishra is the executive director of Mobile Creches, a leading organization in India that works for the right to early childhood development for marginalized children. Its work spans from grassroots interventions to policy advocacy at the national level. She serves on the management team of Philanthropy for Social Justice and Peace (PSJP). Chandrika Sahai is the coordinator of PSJP.

Sumitra Mishra  India has traditionally been a philanthropic culture with giving ingrained in all of its major religions, a part of everyday life. However, both formal and informal giving in India have mainly been private matters, the choice of cause and the method of giving have mostly been motivated by the givers’ desire to do good and feel good. Often, past giving was opaque in its reasons and strategies. Traditionally perceived with distrust, the general public has remained skeptical about NGOs and activism in India, and giving for social change has been marginal. While the latest report, Philanthropy in India (published by Philanthropy for Social Justice and Peace in association with Alliance, WINGS and the Centre for Social Impact and Philanthropy, and Ashoka University) validates this picture, it also points to new trends that hold a promising future in which these trends are reversed. These trends make a case for openness and greater public engagement as key ingredients to finding solutions to complex social problems that continue to plague India. 

Chandrika Sahai PhotoRetail Giving

First, there is the rise of ”retail giving” or individual giving by ordinary citizens, which is bringing middle class individuals, especially young people, into the fold of philanthropy because of their desire to be a part of the solution. They give, not because they have excess wealth to distribute; rather they are driven to do something that can make a change. This trend is supported by use of technology platforms that makes it easier for givers and their circle of friends to get closer to change on the ground. More and more people from diverse backgrounds are engaged in the process and it leads to greater impact than just raising funds.

Last month, to mark India’s Children’s Day, Child Right and You (CRY) ran a #happychildhood campaign on social media with videos of CRY donors and supporters sharing their favorite childhood memories. The campaign was not a direct call for donations. Instead, it tapped the innate empathy in people – the desire to recreate similar experiences for others, motivating them to give because they care. Another example is the DaanUtsav, which started in 2009 as Joy of Giving Week, and has become a tremendous success, engaging 6 to 7 million people today in the act of giving. These examples show how retail giving is democratizing the process of giving, opening up avenues for raising awareness and leveraging the power of these large, networked platforms to mobilize and scale individual agency for social change.  

The Rise of Progressive Philanthropists

Philanthropy-in-India-Front-cover-724x1024Second, the report points to bold steps in giving by progressive individual philanthropists investing large sums of money in structural reforms in the areas of health, education, water and sanitation. Most significantly, there is now a consortium of philanthropists visibly supportive of independent media. This comes at a time when independent media is under attack in the country, indicated, not least by the recent murder of journalist Gauri Lankesh. By publicly investing in independent media, philanthropists with voices of influence such as Azim Premji and Rohini Nilekani are giving not just their dollars, but adding their power and influence to the cause as well, demonstrating the important role transparency has to play in making a difference.   “In India a few people are emerging who are willing to put their money into such things – but it’s a slow burn,” says Rohini Nilekani, who along with her husband recently signed the Giving Pledge, committing to give away the majority of their wealth, at least $1.7 billion to philanthropy.

Furthermore, the report cites the emergence of a number of agencies in India like GuideStar India, Credibility Alliance, CAF India, and GiveIndia that are leading the NGO accrediting process to bridge the gap between NGOs and philanthropists – individuals, corporate, HNIs, foundations. What is most interesting in this push for transparency? It is based on a model where NGOs are pushing for accountability from within, by voluntarily seeking this accreditation.

Citizen-Led Movements

Third, until now, citizen philanthropy-led, social movements have been unrecognized in their push to keep social change movements open, democratic, accountable and issue based. The report draws attention to self-funded activist movements, notably the Right to Information Campaign, the Right to Work movement that succeeded on the strength of public support and not institutional philanthropy. This trend signals that philanthropy is least effective in aiding social change when it plays into unequal power relationships between givers and receivers. It is most effective when it is like a baton passed to wider communities who take center stage in exemplifying how giving, motivating and direct action can push systemic changes. Despite increasing pressure on civil society now leading to shrinking spaces for communicating dissent against inequities and injustice, the report notes how many civil society organizations in every district and town of the country “have been able to mobilize and support citizens to claim access to their rights and to organize self-help efforts.”

These developments in India give a new meaning to transparency in philanthropy. They shift the focus away from compliance to the role of philanthropy and the methods used by it, and places agency and power of the people center stage in this conversation. While the report points to this culture shift, it also points to areas for improvement, particularly the need for donor education.  Perhaps the agenda for donor education in India is best summed up by Pushpa Sundar in her book published earlier this year, Giving with a Thousand Hands: The Changing Face of Indian Philanthropy.  She writes, “Philanthropy orientation has to change from ‘giving back’ to solving social problems.”

People are giving because they want to solve social problems through their own participation. It is time for them to get their due and for the field of institutional philanthropy to recognize that the real drivers of change are people.

--Sumitra Mishra and Chandrika Sahai

Glasspockets Find: How Will Millennial Philanthropists Influence Openness and Innovation in Giving?
December 6, 2017

BNP Paribas Philanthropy ReportGiving is a family legacy for some philanthropists. How will millennials – known for creating new norms when it comes to openness and innovation in everyday life – approach and redefine their roles in family foundations and shape the next generation’s giving mindset?

An insightful report published earlier this year, Passing the Torch: Next Generation Philanthropists, commissioned by BNP Paribas Wealth Management examines the motivations, actions and mindsets of millennial philanthropists involved in their family foundations as they seek to balance the expectations of multi-generational family giving with their desire for innovation in philanthropy.

Such innovative practices include new investment strategies, such as impact investing and ways to measure social impact, and international collaboration. The report findings were based on interviews with affluent interviews and relevant experts.

Millennial philanthropists desire to make a positive impact on society. “Millennials especially are pushing the boundaries of traditional philanthropy with a stronger collaborative spirit and a greater use of impact investing or social entrepreneurship and co-funding opportunities,” Sofia Merlo, co-CEO at BNP Paribas Wealth Management, said in a statement.

In 2015, the nation’s 75.4 million millennials surpassed the number of 74.9 million baby boomers. This generation, which grew up with technology at their fingertips, is known for bucking the status quo, supporting social justice work, and its preference to connect, network and share through social media.

Millennials are opening up their family foundations’ philanthropic work through social media, especially Facebook and Twitter. Survey respondents suggested Facebook is more commonly used because it does not require as much frequent messaging as Twitter.

The report identified unique characteristics of millennial philanthropists:

  • Millennials favor supporting entrepreneurship and are willing to support for-profit organizations as a “sustainable option to achieve their philanthropic ambitions.” Emerging sectors of interest to millennials for social entrepreneurship include financial technologies, educational technologies, renewable energy, and food and agriculture.
  • Millennials are more global in their causes and giving than baby boomers. Millennials prefer to “replicate successes across many places whereas the older (generation) is focused on a single region.”
  • Millennials want to give now to advance change rather than waiting to give later.
  • Millennials use social media differently than baby boomers. Through social media, they find grantees, donors, partners or opportunities to learn.
  • Millennials favor collaboration through local and global networks, whether it’s a search for new ideas and best practices or partners for co-investments and co-funding.

The report also found millennials involved in family foundations are not tied to legacy. Although they approach philanthropy with consideration for the philanthropic traditions of their families and generations before, millennials are “eager to forge a new path, fully using all the tools and resources at their disposal.”

Millennials are willing to strike out on their own philanthropically. When they find that their philanthropic goals do not align with the family foundations, millennials “set up their own foundations or funds to achieve their philanthropic goals.” And for those who champion a more open philanthropic sector, it’s reassuring that the report findings show millennial philanthropists are living up to their reputation and using technology to open up their work and scale their networks.

--Melissa Moy

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